关键差异 - 神经胶质细胞与神经元
The nervous system of the body is of two components:central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord.运动神经元,autonomic nervous system, and enteric nervous system are present in the PNS. The nervous system involves the transmission of signals, both electrical and chemical, in order to regulate different voluntary and involuntary actions of the body. The nervous system is composed of two different cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons are the basic structural units of the nervous system.Neurons are involved in the transmission of electrical and chemical signals along the body to control voluntary and involuntary actions同时神经胶质细胞在调节执行的作用homeostasisof the nervous system which provides adequate protection and support in the functioning of the nervous system.这是神经胶质细胞和神经元之间的关键区别。
1.Overview and Key Difference
2.What are Glial Cells
4.Similarities Between Glial Cells and Neurons
5.并排比较 - 胶质细胞与表格形式的神经元
What are Glial Cells?
Glial cells are of two types: microglia and macroglia.Microgliais considered as special巨噬细胞具有执行能力phagocytosisand destroypathogens.Macroglia帮助合成髓磷脂，并为神经系统提供足够的营养支持。小胶质细胞包括oligodendrocytes，星形胶质细胞，室心膜细胞，Schwann cells和卫星细胞。神经胶质细胞是中枢神经系统中最丰富的细胞类型。星形胶质细胞是大脑中众多类型的神经胶质细胞。
Glial cells have different functions in both CNS and PNS. They surround neurons and hold neurons in place and provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to them. Neuroglia also insulates neurons by forming insulating layers around theaxons，破坏潜在的病原体并从神经系统中去除死亡神经元。
A neuron is the structural unit of the nervous system. It has the ability to conduct both electrical and chemical impulses throughout the body in order to control voluntary and involuntary actions. The exchange of signals between neurons is accomplished by the presence of special structures calledsynapses, connecting with each other to form a network of neurons. A typical neuron consists of a cell body known as ‘soma,’dendritesand an axon which can bemyelinated带有雪旺细胞或unmyelinated. The neuron is an important structure of the CNS and autonomic nervous system of PNS.
Neurons are of many types according to the function they perform.Sensory neuronsconduct nerve impulses by the stimuli received on sensory organs and transmit into the brain.运动神经元从大脑到相关的肌肉，器官或腺体进行信号。Intermediate neuronsconnect other neurons together inside the brain and the spinal cord.
What are the Similarities Between Glial Cells and Neurons?
- Both neurons and glial cells are a part of the nervous system.
- Glial cells and neurons have a resting potential.
|Glial cells are secondary supporting cells which are involved in the regulation of homeostasis of the nervous system and protection.||Neurons are the basic structural units of the nervous system which are involved in the transmission of impulses throughout the body during coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions.|
|Glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses.||Neurons transmit both electrical and chemical impulses.|
|在神经胶质细胞中，轴突和NISL颗粒不存在。||在神经元s, axons and nissl granules are present.|
|神经胶质细胞具有随着年龄的增长而进行细胞分裂的能力。||Neurons are non-renewable. They lack the ability of regeneration and keep to their original form till death.|
|The glial cells surround neurons and regulate homeostasis of the nervous system, support and protect it.||神经元传递神经冲动以协调自愿和非自愿行动。|
摘要 - 神经胶细胞与神经元
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2.贵族，戴尔。“神经细胞。”神经科学。第二版。美国国家医学图书馆，1970年1月1日。Available here. 04 Aug. 2017.
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2. “Neuron”(CC BY-SA 3.0)viaCommons Wikimedia