Thekey differencebetween nucleotide and nucleoside is that thenucleotide contains a磷酸盐虽然核苷缺乏磷酸基。
Nucleosides and nucleotides are a similar type of molecules that differ by a slight structural change. Both nucleotide and nucleoside are composed of same two components; a五糖糖and a nitrogenous base. Additionally, nucleotide has one or more phosphate group. Hence, by adding a phosphate group, a nucleoside can be converted into a nucleotide by the enzymes calledkinase. Nucleotide is the building block ofnucleic acids. On the other hand, nucleosides are good anticancer and antiviral substances.
What is a Nucleotide?
Nucleotide is the building block of two crucial macromolecules (nucleic acids) in living organisms called DNA and RNA. They are the genetic material of an organism and are responsible for passing genetic characteristics from one generation to the next generation. Furthermore, they are important in controlling and maintaining cellular functions. Other than these two macromolecules, there are several other important nucleotides. For example, ATP (Adenosine tri phosphate) and GTP are two important energy molecules. NADP (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) are nucleotides which act as cofactors. Nucleotides like CAM (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) are essential for cell signalling pathways.
A nucleotide has three components namely a pentose sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base and phosphate group/s. Nucleotides differ from each other based on the type of pentose sugar molecule, a nitrogenous base and the number of phosphate groups. For example, deoxyribonucleotide has a deoxyribose sugar while ribonucleotide has a ribose sugar. There are mainly two groups of nitrogenous bases such as purines and pyrimidines.
In the nucleotides of DNA and RNA, normally there is a one phosphate group. However, in ATP, there are three phosphate groups. The linkages between phosphate groups are high energy bonds. Primarily, there are eight basic types of nucleotides in DNA and RNA. And other nucleotides can be derivatives of these eight types. Nucleotides can be linked with each other to form a polymer such as DNA and RNA. This linkage occurs between the phosphate group of one nucleotide with a hydroxyl group of the sugar molecule of the second nucleotide. It is the phosphodiester bond that joins nucleotides and forms DNA and RNA.
This reaction catalyzes by the enzymes called kinases. Hence, if a nucleic acid digests with a nucleotidase enzyme, nucleosides can be formed. Nucleosides are good anticancer agents, and also they have antiviral properties as well. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine.
- Both nucleotide and nucleoside have a pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base.
- When a phosphate group links with a nucleoside, eventually it becomes a nucleotide.
概括– Nucleotide vs Nucleoside
1.“Nucleoside.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Aug. 2018.Available here