Thekey differencebetween covalent bond and dative bond is that thecovalent bond forms when unpaired electrons of two atoms associate with each other whereas the dative bond forms when an atom donates one of its electron pairs to another atom.
Although the dative bond looks like a covalent bond, they are different from each other when we consider the formation of the bond. But, there is no difference between covalent bond and dative bond after its formation. Therefore, we usually call the dative bond a covalent bond, which is not wrong.
What is Covalent Bond?
共价键是一种化学键形式，当两个原子共享一个电子对时形成。We call it a “molecular bond”. The electrons that are being shared are “shared pairs” or “bonding pairs”. A covalent bond formed due to the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons. This electron sharing allows each atom to have the equivalent of a full outer shell. This type of bond forms between two nonmetal atoms having nearly similarelectronegativityvalues or between an electron and a positively charged metal ion.
Covalent bonds are mainly of two types; they are极键和非极性键. Polar bonds exist between two atoms with a difference between their electronegativity values in the range of 0.4 to 1.7. A nonpolar bond forms if this difference is lower than 0.4. This is because, a high difference between electronegativity values means, one atom (having the higher electronegativity value) attracts the electrons more than the other atom does making the bond, polar.
There are three major types of covalent bonds according to the number of electron pairs that are being shared between two atoms. They are single bonds that involve one electron pair, double bonds that involve two electron pairs, and a triple bond that involves three electron pairs.
What is Dative Bond?
一个键是一种共价键，当一个原子将其电子对捐赠给另一个原子时形成。After the formation of the bond, it looks exactly like a covalent bond. This is because both atoms share the same electron pair as the bond pair.
Synonyms for this bond are “dipolar bond” and “coordinate bond”. The most common example is the bonds incoordination complexes. There, the metal ions bind with ligands via these coordinate bonds.
What is the Difference Between Covalent Bond and Dative Bond?
The below infographic presents the difference between covalent bond and dative bond in tabular form.
概括– Covalent Bond vs Dative Bond