Organic molecules are molecules consist of carbons. Organic molecules are the most abundant molecule in living things on this planet. Main organic molecules in living things include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Nucleic acids like DNA contain genetic information of organisms. Carbon compounds like proteins make structural components of our bodies, and they make up enzymes, which catalyze all the metabolic functions. Organic molecules provide us energy to carry out day to day functions. There is evidence to prove that carbonic molecules like methane existed in the atmosphere even several billion years ago. These compounds with the reaction with other inorganic compounds were responsible for generating life on earth. Not only, we are made up of organic molecules, but there are many types of organic molecules around us, which we use every day for different purposes. The clothes we wear are composed of either natural or synthetic organic molecules. Many of the materials in our houses are also organic. Gasoline, which gives energy to automobiles and other machines, are organic. Most of the medicine we take, pesticides, and insecticides are composed of organic molecules. Thus, organic molecules are associated with nearly every aspect of our lives. Therefore, a separate subject as organic chemistry has evolved to learn about these compounds. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, important advances were made in the development of qualitative and quantitative methods for analyzing organic compounds. In this period, empirical formula and molecular formulas were developed to identify molecules separately. Carbon atom is tetravalent, so that it can form only four bonds around it. Also, a carbon atom can use one or more of its valences to form bonds to other carbon atoms. Carbon atom can form either single, double or triple bonds with another carbon atom or any other atom. Carbon molecules also have the ability to exist as isomers. These abilities allow carbon atom to make millions of molecules with different formulas.
碳氢化合物are organic molecules, which consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons can be aromatic or aliphatic. They are mainly divided to few types as divided to alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons.
What is Saturated Hydrocarbon?
Saturated hydrocarbons can also be referred as alkanes. They have the highest number of hydrogen atoms, which a molecule can accommodate. All the bonds between carbon atoms and hydrogens are single bonds. Because of that the bond rotation is allowed between any atoms. They are the simplest type of hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons have the general formula of CnH2n+2.These conditions slightly differ for the cycloalkanes because they have cyclic structures.
What is Unsaturated Hydrocarbon?
In unsaturated hydrocarbons, there are double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms. Since there are multiple bonds, the optimal number of hydrogen atoms is not there in the molecule. Alkenes and alkynes are examples for unsaturated hydrocarbons. Non cyclic molecules with double bonds have the general formula of CnH2nand alkynes have the general formula of CnH2n-2.
What is the difference between饱和烃和不饱和烃s?
• In saturated hydrocarbons, all the bonds are single bonds. In unsaturated hydrocarbons, double bonds and triple bonds are also present.
• Saturated hydrocarbons have the highest number of hydrogen atoms, carbon atoms can accommodate in contrast to unsaturated hydrocarbons.
• Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest type of hydrocarbons.
• Unsaturated hydrocarbon is more reactive.
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