Thekey differencebetween benzene and phenol is thatphenol has a –OH group in place of a hydrogen atom in benzene.
Benzene and phenol are芳烃。Phenol is a derivative of benzene. Benzene structure was found by Kekule in 1872. Because of their aromaticity, they are different than脂肪族compound; thus, benzene and its derivatives are a separate field of study in organic chemistry.
- Molecular weight: 78g mole-1
- Boiling point: 80.1oC
- Density: 0.8765 g cm-3
Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odour. It is flammable and evaporates quickly. This compound is useful as a solvent because it can dissolve a lot of nonpolar compounds. However, benzene is slightly soluble in water.
The structure of benzene is unique compared to other aliphatic hydrocarbons; therefore, benzene has unique properties. All the carbons in this compound have threesp2hybridized orbitals. Two sp2hybridized orbitals of a carbon overlap with sp2hybridized orbitals of adjacent carbons on either side. Other sp2hybridized orbital overlaps with the s orbital of hydrogen to form a σ bond. The electrons in p orbitals of a carbon overlap with the p electrons of carbon atoms in both sides formingpi bonds。This overlap of electrons happens in all six carbons, producing a system of pi bonds, which are spread over the whole carbon ring. Thus, we say that these electrons are delocalized.
The delocalization of the electrons means that there aren’t alternating double and single bonds. So all the C-C bond lengths are the same, and the length is between single and double bond lengths. Due to delocalization, the benzene ring is stable and reluctant to undergo addition reactions, unlike other alkenes.
Sources of Benzene
Sources of benzene are either natural products or various synthesized chemicals. Naturally, they are present in petrochemicals like crude oil or gasoline. Benzene is also present in some synthetic products like plastics, lubricants, dyes, synthetic rubber, detergents, drugs, cigarette smoke and pesticides. This compound is released during the burning of the above materials, so automobile exhaust, factory emissions contain benzene. Moreover, benzene is said to be carcinogenic, so exposure to high levels of it can cause cancer.
Phenol is a white crystalline solid with molecular formula C6H6哦。它是易燃的，有强烈的气味。它的结构及其某些属性在下面给出。
- Boiling point: 181oC
- Density: 1.07 g cm-3
In phenol, the hydrogen atom in the benzene molecule is substituted with a –OH group. Therefore, it has an aromatic ring structure similar to benzene. However, its properties are different due to the –OH group.
苯酚是温和的酸性比醇(酸性)。When it loses the hydrogen of the –OH group, it forms the phenolate ion. Moreover, it is moderately soluble in water, because it can form hydrogen bonds with water. Phenol evaporates slower than water.
What is the Difference Between Benzene and Phenol?
苯和苯酚之间的主要区别在于苯酚具有–OH基团代替苯中的氢原子。苯是具有化学式C的有机化合物6H6苯酚是具有分子式C的白色晶体固体6H6哦。Furthermore, because of the –OH group, phenol is polar than benzene. Compared to benzene, phenol is more soluble in water. In addition, benzene evaporates faster than phenol. Another difference between benzene and phenol is that phenol is acidic while benzene is not.
概括– Benzene vs Phenol
Benzene and phenol are aromatic organic compounds. Benzene is an organic compound having the chemical formula C6H6苯酚是具有分子式C的白色晶体固体6H6哦。苯和苯酚之间的主要区别在于苯酚具有–OH基团代替苯中的氢原子。
1. Wade, Leroy G. “Phenol.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,Available here。