关键区别 - 实验与观察性研究
Experimental and observational studies are two types of studies between which a number of differences can be identified. When conducting research studies, theresearchercan adopt various types of research in order to arrive at conclusions. Experimental and observational studies are two such categories. Thekey difference between experimental and observational study is that an experimental study is a study where the researcher has control over most of thevariables。另一方面，一项观察研究是一项研究，研究人员仅在不控制任何变量的情况下观察受试者。This article attempts to clarify the difference between the two in depth.
What is Experimental Study?
An experimental study is a study where the researcher has control over most of the variables. Once the research problem has been formed, the researcher organizes a study that will allow him to find answers to the研究问题。In this case, the researcher conducts the study in a specific setting such as a laboratory where he can control the variables. This, however, does not entail that all variables can be controlled. On the contrary, some variables can be beyond the control of the researcher.
Experimental studies are mainly conducted in thenatural sciences。This does not denote that experimental studies cannot be conducted in thesocial sciences。They can be conducted. The issue is that, in the social sciences, the controlling variables can be a tricky business. This is because we are dealing with human beings.
What is Observational Study?
When speaking of observational studies, there aretwo main research techniques that can be used。They are the natural observation and the participant observation. In thenatural observation technique, the researcher observes the research subjects, without becoming a part of them. However, inparticipant observation，研究人员成为社会的一部分，以便他获得内部观点。他还成为研究科目社区的一部分，并理解主观interpretations that people have.
When conducting observational studies, the researcher has to be extremely careful because human behavior can easily change when noticed of being observed. This is a natural process. But, this can have an effect on the final results that the researcher wishes to gain. Hence, in order to gather accurate data, it is vital that the researcher does not intrude and not gain the attention of the research subjects, which will reduce the validity of the research findings.
As you can observe, there is a clear difference between the experimental and observational study. Both studies have certain advantages and disadvantages and can only be applied in specific settings. This difference can be summarized as follows.
实验研究：An experimental study is a study where the researcher has control over most of the variables.
实验研究：In experimental studies, the researcher has control over the variables. He can manipulate variables in order to make changes in the environment.
Observational Study:In observational studies, the researcher does not control the research environment, he merely observes.
实验研究：Experimental studies are mostly conducted in the natural sciences.
Observational Study:Observational studies are mostly conducted in the social sciences.
实验研究：The laboratory setting is mostly suitable since variables can be easily controlled.
1.”Milgram实验V2”牡蛎弗雷德（Fred the Oyster）。[CC BY-SA 4.0]通过Wikimedia Commons
2. “Observación de aves en Nador“通过Kokopelado——自己的工作。通过维基C (GFDL)ommons