阿尔茨海默氏病和痴呆症都通常在老年人中看到。两种疾病都损害了cognitivefunctions. Alzheimer’s disease is the commonest cause of dementia. Both diseases affect not only memory but also other cognitive functions. Here, we will discuss all those in detail, highlighting their types, clinical features, signs and symptoms, causes, investigation and diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and care, as well as the difference between Alzheimer’s and dementia.
阿尔茨海默氏病无法治愈，随着时间的流逝，它逐渐损害了认知功能。阿尔茨海默氏病的发作和进展是每个患者独有的。阿尔茨海默氏病的实际原因尚不清楚。有些人假设这是由于在brainand neuronal tangles. Early Alzheimer’s presents as loss of memory of recent events. With time, confusion, unstable mood, irritability, aggressive behavior, trouble with speech and understanding, and poor long term memory appear. Social interactions deteriorate with the progression of the disease. Slowly body functions deteriorate leading to death. It is very difficult to predict the life expectancy and disease progression because of the individual differences.
痴呆症具有除正常衰老外的所有认知功能的损害。痴呆是一组可能是渐进的症状（最常见）或静态的，这是由于变性大脑皮层, which controls the “higher” brain functions. It entails a disturbance of memory, thinking, learning ability, language, judgment, orientation, and comprehension. These are accompanied by problems with control of emotions and behavior. Dementia is the commonest among elderly individuals where an estimated 5% of the total population above 65 years of age is involved. Currently available statistics estimate that 1% of the population below 65 years of age, 5-8% of people between 65–74, 20% of people between 75-84 and 30-50% of people 85 years or older are suffering from dementia. Dementia covers a broad spectrum of clinical features.
尽管没有不同类型的痴呆症，但可以根据疾病的自然史将其大致分为三。固定认知障碍is a type of dementia which does not progress in terms of severity. It results from some type of organic brain disease or injury.血管痴呆is a fixed impairment dementia. (Ex: stroke,脑膜炎，减少脑循环的氧合）。缓慢进行性痴呆是一种痴呆症，最初是对较高大脑功能的间歇性干扰，并逐渐恶化到日常生活活动受损的阶段。这种类型的痴呆通常是由于神经缓慢退化的疾病（神经退行性）。额叶痴呆由于额叶结构的变性缓慢，这是一种缓慢的进行性痴呆。语义痴呆是一种缓慢的进步痴呆症，具有单词含义和言语含义的丧失。Diffuse Lewy body dementiais similar to Alzheimer’s disease except for the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain. (Ex: Alzheimer’s disease, multiple硬化).Rapidly progressive dementia是一种痴呆症，不需要数年才能表现出来，而是在短短几个月内就这样做。（例如：Creuzfeldt-Jacob病，prion病）。
Treating any primary disorder, treating superimposed delirium, treating even minor medical problems, involving family support, arranging practical help at home, arrange help for carers, drug treatment and arranging institutionalized care in case of failure of home care are the basic principles of care for dementia. Drug treatment is used only when the possible side effects are outweighed by the benefits. In severe behavioral changes such as agitation, emotional instability, occasional use of sedatives is warranted (Promazine, Thioridazine).Antipsychotic drugsmay be prescribed indelusions and hallucinations. If depressive features are profound, anti-depressant therapy may be started. Cholinesterase inhibitors acting centrally are of use to approximately half of the patients suffering from dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. They appear to delay the progression of cognitive impairment and in some cases may even improve symptoms for a time.
• Alzheimer’s shows loss of function in the temporal lobe inPET scan痴呆症显示全球功能丧失。